In other cases, NIH prior written approval may be required before a grantee makes certain budget modifications or undertakes particular activities. If NIH approval is required, it must be requested of, and obtained in writing from, the awarding IC GMO in advance of the change or obligation of funds as specified later in this chapter under Requests for Prior Approval. Changes in project or budget resulting from NIH-initiated actions are discussed in other sections of this chapter.
Scope Management Project Scope Management includes the processes required to ensure that the project includes all the work required, and only the work required, to complete the project successfully . It is primarily concerned with defining and controlling what is or is not included in the project.
These processes interact with each other and with the processes in the other knowledge areas as well. Each process may involve effort from one or more individuals or groups of individuals based on the needs of the project.
Each process generally occurs at least once in every project phase.
Although the processes are presented here as discrete elements with well-defined interfaces, in practice they may overlap and interact in ways not detailed here.
Process interactions are discussed in detail in Chapter 3. In the project context, the term "scope" may refer to: The processes, tools and techniques used to manage project scope are the focus of this chapter.
The processes, tools, and techniques used to manage product scope vary by application area and are usually defined as part of the project life cycle the project life cycle is discussed in Section 2. A project consists of a single product, but that product may include subsidiary elements, each with their own separate but interdependent product scopes.
Completion of the product scope is measured against the requirements while completion of the project scope is measured against the plan. Both types of scope management must be well integrated to ensure that the work of the project will result in delivery of the specified product.
This formal initiation links the project to the ongoing work of the performing organization. In some organizations, a project is not formally initiated until after completion of a feasibility study, a preliminary plan, or some other equivalent form of analysis which was itself separately initiated.
Some types of projects, especially internal service projects and new product development projects, are initiated informally and some limited amount of work is done in order to secure the approvals needed for formal initiation.
Projects are typically authorized as a result of one or more of the following: A market demand e. A business need e. A customer request e. A technological advance e. A legal requirement e. These stimuli may also be called problems, opportunities, or business requirements. The central theme of all these terms is that management generally must make a decision about how to respond.
The product description documents the characteristics of the product or service that the project was undertaken to create.
The product description will generally have less detail in early phases and more detail in later ones as the product characteristics are progressively elaborated. The product description should also document the relationship between the product or service being created and the business need or other stimulus that gave rise to the project see list above.
While the form and substance of the product description will vary, it should always be detailed enough to support later project planning.
Many projects involve one organization the seller doing work under contract to another the buyer.
In such circumstances, the initial product description is usually provided by the buyer. Project selection criteria are typically defined in terms of the product of the project and can cover the full range of possible management concerns financial return, market share, public perceptions, etc.
Historical information about both the results of previous project selection decisions and previous project performance should be considered to the extent it is available. When initiation involves approval for the next phase of a project, information about the results of previous phases is often critical.
Project selection methods generally fall into one of two broad categories : These methods are often referred to as decision models.The issue of how to write a problem statement becomes important.
“everybody wants to go to heaven but nobody wants to die”. WHAT IS A RESEARCH PROBLEM? Generally speaking a research problem is a situation that needs a solution and for which there are possible nationwidesecretarial.com://nationwidesecretarial.com SAP NetWeaver AS ABAP Release , ©Copyright SAP AG.
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